east turns grape juice into wine by feeding off sugar in the grape juice in a process called fermentation. During fermentation, the sugars are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide. There are many strains of yeast, and the types used to make wine have been cultured just for this purpose.
During fermentation, yeast spores reproduce exponentially until all of the fermentable sugars have been consumed. The yeast imparts a taste to the finished wine, depending on various factors such as the strain of yeast used and the temperature during fermentation.
Once all the fermentable sugars have been consumed, the yeast falls to the bottom of the container. The wine is removed from the container, leaving the yeast, and is transferred to another container to mature while waiting to be bottled.
Wine gets its color when the vintner lets the skins soak in the juice during fermentation. White wine can be made from black grapes if the skins do not stay in contact with the juice—Champagne is the most famous example. If the skins are left in the wine for only a short amount of time, the vintner produces a rosé. If they are left for a longer time, the vintner produces a dark red wine.
Tannin is extracted from the skins, seeds and stems of the grapes—red wines contain more tannin than whites. White wines get a degree of tannin when they are fermented or aged in oak barrels.
Sulfites, or sulfur dioxide, occur naturally during the fermentation process. Sometimes a wine maker will add a little more because of its antibacterial and preservative qualities. White wines have more sulfites than red wines because they need more protection.
Even though there are very few ingredients, many things influence the taste of wine. Each grape variety will produce different flavors, aromas, and textures. The soil and climate where the grapes are grown dramatically affect the wine, and we believe that Italy is foremost in the world in producing wine that is much more than a simple drink, but an experience of inspiration.
American restaurants and retailers rely on Panebianco's knowledge—we are passionate about introducing Americans to an unusual and exciting range of fine Italian wine.